When we go to heaven will we remember our life on Earth?
The Bible gives us strong assurance that we will retain memories of our life on earth, at least to a degree, as well as our personalities and the degree of spiritual maturity we obtain while on earth.
First, we know that we will retain our identities, at least in the sense of our unique personalities. For example, the Lord promised that the 12 Apostles would rule over the 12 tribes of Israel in the Kingdom:
Obviously, if these men receive what has been promised to them, they maintain their identities, and if they maintain identities, then they must retain memories, for our identity is the result of a lifetime of experiences.
Likewise, the Bible promises that King David will be resurrected and reign over Israel in the Kingdom (though still under Christ's authority as King of the world). Speaking of the Millennial Kingdom, Ezekiel says:
David must maintain his identity (and memories) after the resurrection in order for God to fulfill this prophecy. When we enter the Kingdom, we will all know David as David, which means both David and everyone else must retain memories of life on earth. We must know each other as who we were on earth originally, otherwise this promise to David would be meaningless. So, we can safely conclude we must maintain some degree of memory in the Kingdom.
We also retain our degree of spiritual maturity gained on earth. The Lord promises that those who are faithful with little in this lifetime will be counted worthy for greater responsibility in the age to come:
Notice that Jesus says we are to use our time (and money) now to further the purposes of the Kingdom, so that when we enter the Kingdom we will be welcomed by friends who remember our generosity. Clearly, we must maintain some degree of memory after our resurrection if Jesus’ words are to be understood literally.
Furthermore, the Lord tells Israel that they will remember their sins against the Lord when they enter the Kingdom:
The Lord says plainly that the nation, having been resurrected and glorified in the Kingdom to come, will remember its sins against Him and "loathe" themselves for having done so much to offend God. The word loathe is a particularly strong word in Hebrew, and it clearly indicates we will possess negative memories.
Moreover, the Lord says the reason such memories exist is so that we can fully appreciate His grace. Notice in v.44 the Lord says that the effect of memory will be to magnify His mercy and grace for having dealt with Israel NOT according to their deeds. In other words, God did not punish them as He should but rather showed Israel grace.
Having a memory of our past life will be important to appreciate the grace of God extended to us in Christ. After all, how could we celebrate the Lord for His grace and mercy shown to us if we can't remember what we were forgiven for? On the other hand, the scriptures also indicate that the mistakes of our life of earth will not diminish our joy once we reach the New Heavens and New Earth.
For example, the Bible says:
Perhaps we will remember past disappointments yet without sorrow. Nevertheless, we can say that though memories persist into Heaven, sadness and mourning do not.