Is the passover account in John a different event than the passover recorded in Luke? How do we know?
In his Gospel, John records three Passovers. These three Passovers occur in the three years of Jesus' earthly ministry. John alone recorded the three separate Passover celebrations. John mentions the first in John 2, the second Passover in 6:4 and the third one in 11:55; 12:1; 13:1; 18:28, 39; and 19:14. This third Passover was the one that occurred on the night before Jesus died, and it is the one recorded by all four Gospel writers in conjunction with the Last Supper and the death of Jesus.
The first Passover is only recorded in John's Gospel, and it may have been the Passover of April 18, AD 29, the first year of Jesus' public ministry. Jesus always celebrated the Passover because He was a Jew who obeyed the Mosaic Law (Deut. 16:1-8), in keeping with His mission to fulfill the Law.
In his account of that first Passover, John records Jesus running out the money changers:
Compare this account to Luke's account of Jesus's doing the same thing two years later:
We know this incident is different than the first for two reasons. First, Jesus' words are different in Luke's account than in the first incident recorded in John 2. Secondly, John's Gospel records his incident in Jesus' first visit to Jerusalem on Passover, while Luke records it during Jesus' third Passover visit.
We should have no problem with the thought that Jesus repeated His actions in the temple, and therefore two different Gospel writers record it in two different moments. If seeing money changers in the temple grounds angered Jesus once, it stands to reason it always make Him angry.