Who are the sons of God in Job, and why is Satan permitted access to the Heavenly throne room? It seems as if the Satan of the Old Testament isn't the same character as the one in the New Testament.
The book of Job opens with a scene in the Heavenly throne room where Satan meets with the Lord:
First, the term "sons of God" (ben elohim) is used only two places in the Bible. Once in Genesis 6 and in Job. In the three instances in Job, the context leaves no doubt the term is a reference to the angelic realm. The sons of God are the angels God created, including Satan himself who was the highest angel.
We read about Satan’s origins in Ezekiel 28:
Satan was created to be the “covering cherub” guarding the mercy seat of the Heavenly tabernacle until he fell in sin and was cast out of the tabernacle as profane.
Nevertheless, the scriptures make clear Satan still has access to the throne room of God at least for a time. Clearly, Job shows Satan visiting the throne room at times when the entire assembly of the sons of God (i.e., the angels) are present (see Job 2:1).
Why does the Lord permit Satan such free access to the throne? Revelation 12 gives us a possible answer:
Revelation 12 describes a moment in the future, in the middle of the seven year Tribulation on earth, when the Lord will finally and forever bar Satan and his demons from access to the heavenly throne room. Revelation 12 says that the expulsion of Satan means terrible things are in store for the inhabitants of the earth because Satan will understand he has little time remaining before Christ's return.
Once Satan is barred from the throne room, he becomes desperate like a cornered animal. He will be enraged and seeking to strike back, and he takes his vengeance out on the in habitants of the earth. Since the Lord knows this will be the result of barring Satan from Heaven, the Lord has mercifully delayed this moment until the end of this age.
Satan in the Old Testament is not different than the Satan we see portrayed in the New Testament. On the contrary, the portrayal of Satan in Job is exactly like the Satan described in the New Testament, especially in Revelation. Notice in Job we see Satan making false accusations against Job, a man the Lord describes as an upright and God-fearing servant. Then in Revelation 12 we’re told that the Satan expelled from Heaven is the very same serpent from the Old Testament, the one who accuses the brethren. The Revelation 12 reference to Satan accusing is a direct reference to Satan in Job.